What are the main arguments of Christian theodicy?

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Theodicy is a term that stems from the Greek words "theos" (god) and "dike" (justice), which together concern the vindication of divine goodness and providence in view of the existence of evil. This theological concept is particularly significant in Christianity, where the omnipotence and omnibenevolence of God are central tenets. Christian theodicy seeks to answer a pressing question that challenges believers and skeptics alike: If God is all-good and all-powerful, why does He allow evil and suffering in the world?

1. Free Will Defense

One of the most influential arguments in Christian theodicy is the Free Will Defense. This argument asserts that God, in His omnipotence and omnibenevolence, created humans with free will to choose between good and evil. This capacity for free choice is what makes true love and genuine moral actions possible. If God were to coerce virtue, human actions would not be morally meaningful. The philosopher Alvin Plantinga has been a prominent proponent of this defense, arguing that "God cannot eliminate much of the world's evil without thereby eliminating the greater goods of human freedom and moral development" (Plantinga, 1974).

The biblical foundation for this argument can be seen in Genesis 2:16-17, where God commands Adam not to eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thereby setting the stage for human free will. The Apostle Paul reflects on this in Romans 8:20-21, suggesting that creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own choice, but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope that it will be liberated from its bondage to decay.

2. Soul-Making Theodicy

Another significant approach within Christian theodicy is the Soul-Making Theodicy, proposed by John Hick. This argument suggests that God allows evil and suffering in the world as a means to develop souls, improving and perfecting them through overcoming adversity. Hick draws on the biblical narrative of Job and the teachings of Jesus about the value of perseverance (James 1:2-4). The idea is that life’s trials and tribulations are not pointless but serve a greater purpose in contributing to the formation of a virtuous character, akin to refining gold through fire (1 Peter 1:6-7).

Hick argues that a world devoid of any challenges would be one devoid of growth, learning, and moral development. Therefore, the existence of evil is seen as an integral part of God’s plan for a morally rich and valuable world where free beings can grow towards a closer relationship with Him.

3. Eschatological Theodicy

Eschatological Theodicy looks to the end times for its justification of the presence of evil in the world. This perspective holds that all suffering and evil will ultimately be made right at the final judgment and the establishment of a new heaven and a new earth (Revelation 21:1-4). In this new creation, God will wipe away every tear, and death, mourning, crying, and pain will be no more.

This view does not necessarily explain why evil exists in the first place but offers a future hope where the justice of God is fully realized, affirming the ultimate goodness and justice of God. It reassures believers that their suffering is not in vain and encourages them to maintain faith and patience, trusting in God’s ultimate plan for humanity.

4. The Limitations of Human Understanding

A more humble approach to theodicy acknowledges the limitations of human understanding in comprehending divine purposes. This argument suggests that human beings, in their finite wisdom, cannot fully grasp the infinite wisdom of God. The Book of Isaiah reminds us that "For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways," declares the LORD. "As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts" (Isaiah 55:8-9).

This perspective encourages trust in God’s goodness and justice, even in the absence of clear answers. It calls for faith that God has morally sufficient reasons for allowing evil and suffering, even if these reasons are beyond human comprehension.


In conclusion, Christian theodicy offers multiple explanations for the presence of evil and suffering in the world, each contributing to a richer understanding of divine providence and justice. Whether through the lens of free will, soul-making, eschatological promise, or the acknowledgment of our limited understanding, these theodicies provide a framework for believers to reconcile the existence of evil with the character of an all-good, all-powerful God. While these answers may not completely satisfy every skeptic, they offer substantial grounds for faith and hope, affirming that in God’s realm, even the darkest moments have their place in a larger divine narrative.

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