What are the purposes of the Anointing of the Sick?

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Anointing of the Sick, often referred to as the sacrament of the sick or extreme unction, holds a profound place within the Christian practice, serving multiple spiritual and communal purposes. This sacred ritual, deeply rooted in biblical tradition and enriched by centuries of theological reflection, offers a rich tapestry of meaning and support for those undergoing severe illnesses or near the end of life.

Theological Foundations and Scriptural Basis

The practice of anointing the sick with oil as a form of prayer and healing can be traced back to the New Testament. In the Epistle of James, the apostle provides direct instructions on how the early Christian community should care for the sick: "Is anyone among you sick? Let them call the elders of the church to pray over them and anoint them with oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer offered in faith will make the sick person well; the Lord will raise them up. If they have sinned, they will be forgiven" (James 5:14-15). This passage not only underscores the importance of this rite but also highlights its dual nature as both a physical and spiritual healing process.

Purposes of Anointing of the Sick

Spiritual Healing and Reconciliation

One of the primary purposes of the Anointing of the Sick is to facilitate spiritual healing. The sacrament provides the sick person with a profound sense of peace and comfort in the face of suffering and mortality. It is an intimate encounter with God's mercy, which can lead to inner healing, even when physical recovery might not be possible. The sacrament is often accompanied by the sacrament of Reconciliation, which allows the individual to confess sins and find spiritual restoration. This dual sacramental approach ensures that the person is spiritually fortified to face the challenges of their physical condition.

Physical Healing

While the primary focus of the Anointing of the Sick is often spiritual, we cannot overlook its intention towards physical healing. The Church believes in a God who cares deeply about our physical well-being. The prayer of faith, as mentioned in the Epistle of James, can lead to physical healing according to God’s will. This reflects the Christian belief in a God who is actively involved in the lives of His followers, one who cares about their suffering and seeks to alleviate it.

Preparation for Passing

For those who are critically ill or near death, the Anointing of the Sick serves to prepare their souls for the journey into eternal life. In this context, the sacrament is a source of consolation and hope not only for the dying but also for their families and loved ones. It reassures them of the promise of resurrection and eternal life, offering a sense of peace about the forthcoming transition from this life to the next.

Community Solidarity

Anointing of the Sick also has a communal dimension. It reminds the Church community of its duty to care for the sick and to pray for them. When a priest administers this sacrament, he often does so in the presence of family members, friends, and sometimes the larger church community. This communal aspect underscores the interconnectedness of the Body of Christ. The faithful are reminded that caring for the sick is not just the responsibility of the clergy but of the entire community, who are called to support the suffering with their love, prayers, and presence.

Renewal of Faith

The sacrament often leads to a renewal of faith, not just for the sick person but also among those who are present. Witnessing the sacred act of anointing can strengthen the faith of the community, reaffirming their belief in God’s power to heal and save. It can be a powerful evangelical moment that brings the reality of God’s kingdom into clearer focus for all involved.

The Role of the Holy Spirit

The Holy Spirit plays a crucial role in the Anointing of the Sick. It is believed that through the anointing with oil and the laying on of hands, the Holy Spirit works to comfort, heal, and sanctify the sick person. The presence of the Spirit transforms the sacrament from a mere ritual into a dynamic encounter with God. The oil, a symbol of strength and healing, serves as a tangible sign of the Holy Spirit’s anointing.


In sum, the Anointing of the Sick is a multifaceted sacrament designed to meet the spiritual, physical, and emotional needs of Christians during times of severe illness and near the end of life. Rooted in Scripture and enriched by the Church’s pastoral care tradition, this sacrament affirms the dignity of the human person, offers the hope of healing, prepares souls for eternal life, and strengthens the bonds of community. It is a profound expression of God’s loving care and presence in the midst of human frailty and suffering.

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